Bauchi State is one of the thirty-six political administrative states in Nigeria. It is one of the nineteen loosely referred to as the northern states and one of the eight often referred to as the far northern, dominantly Hausa/Fulani and Muslim states in the country
Kofar Wanti (Wuntoi) Gate, Bauchi
.It was, however, created as a state in 1976 when the then North-Eastern State was split into three different states, viz: Bauchi, Borno and Gongola. Bauchi State remained intact in its 1976 boundaries, surviving two subsequent state creation exercises of 1987 and 1991.
However, in October 1996, Gombe State was carved out of the then Bauchi State, with eight Local Government Areas (viz: Akko, Balanga, Billiri, Dukku, Gombe, Kaltungo, Nafada and YamaituDeba) forming the new Gombe State, and the remaining LGAs (i.e. Alkaleri, Bauchi, Darazo, Dass, Ganjuwa, Gamawa, Itas/Gadau, Jama'are, Katagun, Misau, Ningi, Shira, Tafawa Balewa, Toro and Zaki) forming the new Bauchi State.
Location and Size: The present Bauchi State's southern and northern limits are demarcated by latitudes 9?30' North and 12?30' North, respectively, its western and eastern limits are bounded by longitudes 8?45' East and 11?0' East, respectively. These mark the points of longest and widest stretches of the state. Within these co-ordinates, however, the state's total land area covers about 49,259 sq. km. This is about 4.9m ha out of Nigeria's 92.4m ha (Nig, FOS, 1987). The state now has an eight-like shape, with a blotted lower region, with about two-thirds of the land area being south of latitude 11?15'N.
The neighbouring states by location, clockwise, are Yobe, Gombe, Taraba, Plateau, Kaduna, Kano and Jigawa States. Thus, Bauchi State could potentially co-operate in mutual development programmes and projects with up to seven other states which share borders with her. Indeed, the state occupies a central location spatially among the north-east group of states in Nigeria.
Another locational advantage which Bauchi State has, is its proximity to Jos Plateau, which is less than 100km south of the state, by which it has access to a commercial airport and to a large market for its agricultural produce, particularly fruits and
There are twenty local 1996. When Gombe State was carved out, the present Bauchi State was left with fifteen LGAs. Some of them were, in October 1996, further divided to make up the present twenty LGAs ( Table 5.1). The state comprises several previously inde. pendent powerful Emirates, including, for instance, Bauchi, Ningi, Katagum, Dass, Kanam and Duguri.The LGAs are themselves subdivided into districts which are made up of various village areas/groups.
Geology and Relief: Bauchi State lies generally at an altitude of about 600m above sea level, being part of the central Nigeria highlands and Jos Plateau complex. However, two broad relief zones can be identified, as follows:
Bauchi Central Mosque
a. A western high land area of hill ranges, including the northern edges of the Jos Plateau complex. This is part of the crystalline rock area in central northern Nigeria. The hill ranges are developed " on basement complex rocks, in an area which is also characterised by extensive '' plateau surfaces and volcanic extrusions. " The base of the hill ranges is generally at the 600m level, while peaks rise to 700.6m on the hills, and 729.3m on the Bunsil hills.
b. A central high plain (of the Hausa land) area, belonging to the Kerri Kerri and " Gombe sandstone and shale, of Tertiary Age. Isolated hills punctuate the high plain in several places, and reach heights '' of 798.5m on the Lamurde hill, and 816.4m on the Ligri hill. Indeed, most of the isolated hills in this zone are over 760m. Bauchi town lies within the undifferentiated basement complex with older granites (out-crops) and younger granite out-crops.
Surface Drainage and Ground water Situation: The state is drained by several river systems. The dominant one is River Gongola which originates in the Jos Plateau area, southwest of Bauchi State. It traverses, in a southwest-north east direction through the southern LGAs of the state including Dass, T/Balewa, Bogoro, Bauchi and Kirfi and, thence, to Gombe State. It has numerous headwaters and tributaries within the state.
They include Rivers Surr, Lere, Maijuju, Rafin Bagel, Gangala and Gubi in the southwest part; Rivers Guji, Yuli, Ruhu, Dukut and Panana in the south and south-east parts. Through these tributaries and several other smaller streams and rivulets, the Gongola system provides considerable advantages for the state.
The western and northern parts of the state are drained by the Rivers Bunga and Jama'are systems. The Bunga, with its many tributaries, including Rivers Fanro, Magariya and Dan Warra, flows into the Jama'are system, and thence to constitute part of the River Yobe system. Within the northeastern part of the state is the River Dingaya (Dingaiye) system, with its tributaries such as River Kasi. The latter has rivers Farin Ruwa, Jimini and many others as its own tributaries also.
In the extreme northern part of the state is a considerable stretch of the River Katagum system. Thus, the state has considerable surface drainage systems that could be harnessed for development purposes. This is more so, in view of the fact that much of the state lies within very poor ground water provinces. For instance, within the basement complex crystalline rock areas, ground water is very unpredictable.
Only secondary aquifers occur in rock fractures, joints or weathering profiles. Water table is restricted to sub-basins in localised, isolated patches. Bore hole yields are often very variable. In the sandstone areas, ground water occurs mainly within depths of 0 183m, while boreholes have moderate yields of about 5,000 litres per hour (Lph). Groundwater from this formation is said to be generally suitable tor domestic and industrial uses. On the whole, the state would more profitably rely on impounded surface river reservoirs (dams) than on boreholes for groundwater.
Climate: Temperatures are, as would be expected, generally high in the state. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 29.2?C in July and August to 37.6?C in March and April. The mean daily minimum ranges from about 11.7?C in December and January to about 24.7?C in April and May.
Bauchi state Museum,Bauchi
The sunshine hours range from about 5.1 hours in July to about 8.9 hours in November. Indeed, October to February usually record the longest sunshine hours in the state. Humidity ranges from about twelve per cent in February to about 68 per cent in August.
The rainy season months are May to September, when humidity ranges from about 37 per cent to 68 per cent. Monthly rainfall ranges from 0.0mm in December and January, though only traces of less than 0.1mm in February and November, to about 343mm in July. Onset of the rains is often in March while they end virtually by October.
Radiation is fairly even throughout the year, ranging from about 11.3mm in July to about 18.7mm in April. However, it is relatively highest in March, April and May, when it is generally between 16.1mm and 18.7mm. Similarly, evaporation in the state ranges from 2.4mm in July and August to about 15.7mm in March, the months of January April being the period of greatest evaporation. Bauchi State spans two distinct vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan Savannah in the southern parts and the Sahel Savannah in the northern parts. It is generally characterised by undifferentiated (mixed) woodlands, particularly mixed acacia