Posted by on 1/29/2003 1:08:38 PM


Borno is one of the educationally disadvantaged states of the federation, even though the state government provides adequate facilities and teaching materials in both primary and postprimary schools. There are 1,206 primary schools with 15,681 streams classrooms; and a total enrolment of 637,699 pupils and 10,881 teachers, giving a teacherpupil ratio of 1:59.

There are seventyeight secondary and vocational training schools with 1,613 streams of classrooms, a total enrolment of 88,152 and 2,854 teachers with a teacherstudent ratio of 1:31. Thus, only one out of seven pupils (13.82 per cent) proceed from primary school to the postprimary level.

Postsecondary institutions in the state include: the Ramat Polytechnic, three Colleges of Education, the Borno College of Legal and Islamic Studies and the College of Agriculture owned by the state. The University of Maiduguri, which is a federal institution, is at the apex. Educational attainment of Kanuri LGAs, at all levels, lags greatly behind those of the nonKanuri southern LGAs. This has dichotomised the state and has been a potent source of conflict in the state.


There are a total of 352 health establishments in Borno State. The structure of the health care delivery system is pyramidal. At the apex are the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, the Maiduguri Specialist Hospital, the Eye Clinic, the Dental Clinic, the Infectious Diseases Hospital and the Psychiatric Hospital. At the intermediate level are thirtytwo general hospitals, seven leprosariums and fourteen maternal and child health care centres.

At the bottom of the ladder are 258 health clinics and dispensaries, mainly found in the rural areas. In addition, there are thirtyfive private hospitals and clinics and many pharmaceutical chemists and patent medicine stores, most of which operate in Maiduguri. All stateowned health establishments are under the state Health Management Board, while the health departments of the LGAs are responsible for the provisionof primary health care through the dispensaries and health clinics.

Water Supply:

Scarcity of water resources has remained one of the fundamental problems of the state, as most of the state lies in the Sahelian belt. It is, therefore, prone to drought and general water scarcity. Available statistics show that there are 1,548 cemented wells dug by the local and state governments.

A total of 692 boreholes have been sunk by the local, state and federal governments and by bilateral agencies and various communities. Borehole water supply to Maiduguri, the state capital, is supplemented by the Alau dam scheme. In addition, there are a number of earth dams in various parts of the state. The problems of water supply in Borno State could largely be attributed to the poor maintenance culture. Generally, less than half of the number of boreholes and wells sunk in the communities are functional.


Electricity supply is restricted to the urban areas particularly the local government headquarters, with the exception of the headquarters of some of the newly created LGAs. Few of the urban centres, namely, Maiduguri, Bama, Konduga, Gwoza, Uba Damboa, Biu, Benisheikh, Ngamdu, Kwaya Kusar, Kafa, Dikwa and Sham are connected to the national electricity grid. The State Rural Electrification Board supplies the rural areas with electricity, though little progress has been made.

Transport and Communication:

Borno State is connected to other states in the federation by air, road and rail. The state has a total of 2,449km of tarred allseason roads and 755km of untarred seasonal roads linking various LGA headquarters. Road transportation in the state is, however, inadequate and most of the existing roads, particularly the Federal roads, are in a deplorable state. Road density is low and many parts of the state are remote and inaccessible.

Borno State is also connected by rail to other states, particularly the Eastern States by the extension from Bauchi. Modernisation of the Nigerian Railway is yet to reach Maiduguri. Consequently, traffic on the line is a rare occurrence. The Maiduguri International Airport provides air transport from Maiduguri to other major cities in Nigeria and abroad.

Borno Express, a mass transit concern owned by the state government, has a sizeable fleet of vehicles that operate intrastate at a relatively cheap rate. In addition are private luxury buses that ply interstate and take off daily from Baga and Kano motor parks in the state capital.

Telecommunication is not well advanced. Telephone link is only with Maiduguri, Bama and Biu. Reception of broadcasts by the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Borno Radio and Television (BRTV) stations is limited to the vicinity of Maiduguri, where their domsat stations are located

and the neighbouring LGAs such as, Konduga, Bama and Gwoza. There are no booster stations to facilitate the transmission of TV signals to all parts of the state. LGAs bordering Cameroun Republic receive Cameroun TV signals clearly on their screens, but they need to be able to receive Nigerian television stations (NTA, BRTV).

NIPOST services are not felt in the LGAs, because only some headquarters have post offices. There are a total of twentythree Post Offices and Postal Agencies in the state, made up of two departmental post offices, ten subpost offices, seven postal agencies and four head post offices.

Tourism and Recreation:

Borno State has great potentials for tourism development. The Sambisa Game Reserve is being developed for the purpose. Kyarimi Park in Maiduguri serves mostly Maiduguri residents. Lake Chad, Lake Alau, Mandara Mountains and Biu Plateau are viable centres for tourism and recreation when developed. Other tourist attractions are the Borno State Museum, the Rabeh's Fort at Dikwa, the ancient city of Kukawa and the Shehu's Palace in Maiduguri.

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